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沼氣成分對沼氣發電機組的影響以及解決方案

來源:http://dgxcbw.com   發布于:2018-12-12

1.硫化氫對發電機組的影響

1. The influence of hydrogen sulfide on generating units

硫化氫(H2S)是一種無色有毒的可燃性氣體,具有激烈的臭雞蛋氣味,當空氣中硫化氫的體積含量超越0.1%時,就能引起頭疼暈眩等中毒癥狀。硫化氫(H2S)對鐵等金屬有強腐蝕性,也易吸附金屬表面與多種金屬離子效果,生成不溶于水的硫化物沉積。沼氣在焚燒時,其間的H2S還能轉化為腐蝕性很強的亞硫酸氣霧會污染環境和腐蝕機器設備,同時H2S在濕潤的環境下對金屬管道、焚燒設備、檢測設備和儀表等都具有激烈的腐蝕性,所以沼氣在使用前有必要脫出其間所含的H2S。

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. When the volume of hydrogen sulfide in the air exceeds 0.1%, it can cause headache, dizziness and other poisoning symptoms. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is highly corrosive to iron and other metals. It is also easy to absorb metal surface and various metal ions, resulting in water-insoluble sulfide deposition. In the process of biogas incineration, H2S can also be converted into highly corrosive sulfite mist, which will pollute the environment and corrode machinery and equipment. At the same time, H2S has intense corrosiveness to metal pipelines, incineration equipment, detection equipment and instrumentation in wet environment. Therefore, it is necessary for biogas to remove the H2S contained in it before use.

使用沼氣發電時沼氣中的硫化氫會對沼氣發電機組的進氣管道、增壓器、中冷器、火花塞、氣缸套、排氣管和消音器等形成嚴峻腐蝕影響機組壽數。所以沼氣在進入發電機組之前有必要進行沼氣預處理,將H2S降到機組允許的范圍內才干確保機組的可靠運轉。

Hydrogen sulfide in biogas will cause severe corrosion to intake pipes, superchargers, intercoolers, spark plugs, cylinder liners, exhaust pipes and mufflers of biogas generating units. So it is necessary to pretreat the biogas before the biogas enters the generating unit and reduce the H2S to the allowable range of the generating unit in order to ensure the reliable operation of the generating unit.

D88尊龙2.水分對發電機組的影響

2. The influence of moisture on generating units

在使用沼氣發電過程中,沼氣水分含量過大的話,會導致發電機組的進氣壓力損耗過大,嚴峻的情況下,會引起發動機功率動搖、敲缸、停機等嚴峻地影響其使用壽數。其詳細表現為:

D88尊龙In the process of using biogas to generate electricity, if the moisture content of biogas is too high, it will lead to excessive loss of intake pressure of generating units. In severe cases, it will cause engine power shaking, cylinder knocking, shutdown and other severe impact on its service life. Its detailed manifestations are as follows:

(a)發動機焚燒困難;

(a) Engine burning is difficult;

D88尊龙(b)下降焚燒室溫度,下降內燃機的功率;

D88尊龙(b) Reducing the temperature of the incinerator and the power of the internal combustion engine;

(c)因為水蒸氣等無功氣體的存在,增壓耗功增大;

D88尊龙(c) Because of the presence of reactive gases such as water vapor, the power consumption of turbocharging increases.

(d)水蒸氣與其他酸性物質的化合發生中心產品,對機器自身發生腐蝕,縮短機器的使用壽數,下降機器的可靠性。

D88尊龙(d) The combination of water vapor and other acidic substances produces a central product, which corrodes the machine itself, shortens the service life of the machine and reduces the reliability of the machine.

D88尊龙3.固體雜質對發電機組的影響

D88尊龙3. Effect of Solid Impurities on Generator Units

粉塵是大氣環境中涉及面廣、損害嚴峻的一種污染物。粉塵是發動機明確限制的雜質,它首要影響在于:

D88尊龙Dust is one of the most widely involved and severely damaged pollutants in the atmospheric environment. Dust is an impurity that is clearly limited by the engine. Its primary influence lies in:

(a)堵塞管路,流通不暢,加大壓損,增加運轉費用;

(a) Blocking pipelines, poor circulation, increasing pressure loss and operating costs;

(b)增大機械磨損,下降設備使用壽數。

D88尊龙(b) Increase the mechanical wear and tear, and decrease the service life of the equipment.

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處理方案

Treatment plan

針對發動機對沼氣的要求,在沼氣發動機前安裝處理體系以處理了氣源側與用氣側的對立是現在處理沼氣發電機組使用問題的有效辦法,首要表現在以下兩個方面:

According to the requirement of biogas engine, installing treatment system before biogas engine to deal with the opposition between the gas source side and the gas side is an effective way to deal with the use of biogas generating units. The main manifestations are as follows:

D88尊龙1.下降氣體的相對濕度

1. Relative humidity of falling gas

水分的脫除,考慮到詳細的情況,簡單分為凝聚水的脫除以及未凝聚水脫除兩大部分,前者可以選用汽水分離器來完成,后者的完成較為復雜,現在首要有下面幾種方法:

D88尊龙The removal of water can be divided into two parts: the removal of condensed water and the removal of non-condensed water. The former can be accomplished by steam-water separator, while the latter is more complex. Now the following methods are the first to be used:

D88尊龙(a)低溫除濕:經過制冷設備下降氣體的溫度,使得其間的水蒸氣凝聚,然后排除體系;

D88尊龙(a) Low temperature dehumidification: the temperature of the gas is lowered by the refrigeration equipment, so that the water vapor condenses between them, and then the system is eliminated;

(b)吸附:選用對水有較強吸附效果的吸附劑,將氣體中的水分分出;

(b) Adsorption: Select adsorbents with strong adsorptive effect to separate water from gas;

(c)膜過濾:選用特別結構的膜材料,在特定的條件下將水從氣體中分出。

(c) Membrane filtration: Water is separated from gases under specific conditions by using membrane materials with special structures.

2.下降氣體雜質成分含量

2. Decrease the content of impurities in gases

D88尊龙氣體中的雜質是比較復雜的成分,因為是針對發動機的使用,所以對雜質的判斷首要以發動機的要求為準,首要有下面幾種:

Impurities in gases are more complex components, because they are for the use of engines, so the determination of impurities should first be based on the requirements of the engine, and the following are the main ones:

(a)硫的去除:

(a) Removal of sulphur:

以硫化氫為主的硫化物的去除首要有物理、化學以及生物三種方法。其間物理辦法首要指物理吸附方法脫硫,這種方法操作簡潔,但往往需求占地較大的設備,并且吸附劑需求再生。化學方法指以化學反響的方法將硫固化下來,現在有干法及濕法,其差別首要是反響物的物理形狀是固體仍是液體的差別。生物法脫硫是現在比較新興的一種方法,其首要原理是在反響罐中培養出合適的菌種,這些菌種以硫化物為養料,將其間的硫固定下來。 關于硫含量不高的氣體,選用物理吸附或者干法脫硫一般比較經濟實用,并且操作簡潔。

D88尊龙Physical, chemical and biological methods are the main methods for the removal of hydrogen sulfide-based sulfides. Physical method mainly refers to physical adsorption desulfurization. This method is simple to operate, but often requires large equipment, and adsorbent needs regeneration. Chemical method means that sulfur is solidified by chemical reaction. Now there are dry and wet methods. The main difference is that the physical shape of the reactant is the difference between solid and liquid. Biological desulfurization is a relatively new method nowadays. Its primary principle is to cultivate suitable bacteria in the reaction tank. These bacteria are fed with sulfide and fix the sulfur between them. For gases with low sulfur content, physical adsorption or dry desulfurization is generally economical and practical, and the operation is simple.

D88尊龙此外,根據我國的環保規范規定:沼氣作為動力使用時,沼氣中的H2S含量不得超越200mg/Nm3。因此沼氣經過脫硫處理后需求選用沼氣分析儀對沼氣中H2S含量進行實時在線監測,為業主供給實時精確的數據參閱,幫助其對沼氣預處理工藝進行優化調整,進步沼氣發電機組進氣品質,以確保H2S含量到達沼氣發電的要求。

In addition, according to the environmental protection regulations of our country, when biogas is used as power, the content of H2S in biogas should not exceed 200 mg/Nm3. Therefore, after desulfurization treatment of biogas, it is necessary to use biogas analyzer to monitor the H2S content in biogas on-line in real time, to provide real-time and accurate data reference for owners, to help them optimize and adjust the pretreatment process of biogas, to improve the intake quality of biogas generating units, so as to ensure that the H2S content meets the requirements of biogas power generation.

因為沼氣成分復雜,除H2S外還含有CH4、CO2、O2等氣體成分,假如要確保沼氣發電機組的沼氣品質,進步沼氣熱值,確保沼氣焚燒發電功率,除了要下降H2S含量,經過監測沼氣中CH4、CO2的濃度,為優化厭氧發酵工藝,進步CH4含量,下降CO2含量供給參閱根據,也是十分必要的。

D88尊龙Because the composition of biogas is complex, besides H2S, it also contains CH4, CO2, O2 and other gas components. If we want to ensure the biogas quality of biogas generating units, improve the calorific value of biogas, and ensure the power generation of biogas incineration, besides reducing the content of H2S, monitoring the concentration of CH4 and CO2 in biogas, in order to optimize the anaerobic fermentation process, improve the content of CH4 and reduce the content of CO2, it is also very important. Necessary.

(b)粉塵(顆粒物)的去除:

(b) Removal of dust (particulate matter):

D88尊龙一般選用過濾的方法將顆粒物限制在一定的范圍內。另外,某些顆粒可以在吸附的環節去除去,為到達較好的去除效果,一般對氣體中的顆粒物分級處理,設置不同精度的過濾器,逐級將顆粒物處理到體系終究的要求,這樣不只可以下降精密過濾的本錢,也可以增加體系運轉的可靠性。

Generally, the method of filtration is used to limit the particulate matter to a certain range. In addition, some particles can be removed in the process of adsorption. In order to achieve a better removal effect, particulate matter in the gas is generally classified, filters with different precision are set up, and particulate matter is processed to the final requirements of the system step by step. This can not only reduce the cost of precision filtration, but also increase the reliability of the system operation.


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