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不同使用功能的發電機組的“共性”

來源:http://dgxcbw.com   發布于:2018-09-18

①性能參數

1. Performance parameters

燃氣輪機組與內燃機組熱電輸出特性將影響分布系統的性能,小型燃氣輪機組適用于較大規模的分布系統,內燃機組適用于較小規模的分布系統。相近發電功率下,內燃機組的發電效率比小型燃氣輪機組高,但前者的排煙溫度較低。此外,與內燃機組相比,燃氣輪機組性能受海拔和環境溫度影響較大,但在確定廠址的前提下,負荷變化對兩種發電機組性能的影響較為突出。

D88尊龙Thermoelectric output characteristics of gas turbine and internal combustion unit will affect the performance of distribution system. Small gas turbine unit is suitable for large-scale distribution system, and internal combustion unit is suitable for small-scale distribution system. Under similar power generation, the efficiency of internal combustion unit is higher than that of small gas turbine unit, but the exhaust gas temperature of the former is lower. In addition, compared with internal combustion units, the performance of gas turbine units is greatly affected by altitude and ambient temperature, but under the premise of determining the site of the plant, the impact of load changes on the performance of the two generators is more prominent.

②變工況特性

D88尊龙Variable operating characteristics

在分布系統中,發電機組常運行在部分負荷狀態下,其變工況特性對分布系統綜合性能影響較大。以發電功率均為3MW的燃氣輪機組、內燃機組為例,熱效率、發電效率隨負荷率的變化。可知,隨著負荷率的降低,兩種發電機組的發電效率均呈現下降趨勢,但內燃機組的發電效率比燃氣輪機組高10%(絕對值)左右。燃氣輪機組的熱效率明顯高于內燃機組,前者的熱效率隨著負荷率的降低而降低,后者的熱效率隨著負荷率的降低有上升趨勢。由以上分析可知,盡管兩種發電機組在額定工況下具有大致相同的熱電總效率(熱效率與發電效率之和),但內燃機組的變工況特性更優。

D88尊龙In the distributed system, the generator set often runs under partial load, and its off-design characteristics have great influence on the comprehensive performance of the distributed system. Taking gas turbine and internal combustion unit with generating power of 3 MW as an example, the thermal efficiency and power generation efficiency change with load rate. It can be seen that, with the reduction of load rate, the generation efficiency of the two generators shows a downward trend, but the generation efficiency of the internal combustion unit is about 10% (absolute value) higher than that of the gas turbine unit. The thermal efficiency of gas turbine unit is obviously higher than that of internal combustion unit. The thermal efficiency of the former decreases with the decrease of load rate, while that of the latter increases with the decrease of load rate. From the above analysis, it can be seen that although the two generators have roughly the same total thermoelectric efficiency (the sum of thermal efficiency and power generation efficiency) under rated conditions, the off-design characteristics of internal combustion units are better.

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③余熱特性

Waste heat characteristics

a.燃氣輪機組

A. gas turbine unit

微型燃氣輪機組的煙氣溫度較低,集中在300℃左右,主要用于制冷、供暖、制備生活熱水,少數情況用于生產低壓蒸汽。小型燃氣輪機組的煙氣溫度較高,煙氣溫度在500℃以上的機組占68.5%,煙氣溫度在450℃以上的機組占93.8%,主要用于生產高壓蒸汽,除直接利用及利用蒸汽型吸收式冷水機組制冷外,還可推動蒸汽輪機發電機組發電,組成燃氣輪機組一蒸汽聯合循環系統。

The flue gas temperature of the micro gas turbine set is low, which is concentrated around 300 C. It is mainly used for refrigeration, heating and domestic hot water preparation. In a few cases, it is used to produce low pressure steam. The flue gas temperature of small gas turbine is higher, 68.5% of the units whose flue gas temperature is above 500 C and 93.8% of the units whose flue gas temperature is above 450 C. It is mainly used to produce high pressure steam. Besides directly utilizing and utilizing steam absorption chiller to refrigerate, it can also drive steam turbine generator to generate electricity and form gas. The steam turbine is a steam combined cycle system.

b.內燃機組

B. internal combustion unit

D88尊龙與燃氣輪機組的余熱全部體現在煙氣不同,內燃機的余熱分為兩部分:一部分為缸套冷卻水余熱,是為保證燃氣內燃機正常工作溫度,通過冷卻系統帶走的熱量,溫度較低;另一部分為煙氣余熱,是燃料燃燒做功后煙氣攜帶的熱量,煙氣溫度基本介于微型與小型燃氣輪機組之間。由于缸套冷卻水溫度較低,主要用于供熱、制備生活熱水,煙氣可用于驅動吸收式冷水機組及生產蒸汽外輸。

D88尊龙The waste heat of internal combustion engine is divided into two parts: one part is the waste heat of cylinder liner cooling water, which is to ensure the normal working temperature of the gas internal combustion engine, and the heat carried by the cooling system is relatively low; the other part is the waste heat of flue gas, which is carried by the flue gas after the work of fuel combustion. The heat and flue gas temperature are basically between micro and small gas turbine units. Because the cylinder liner cooling water temperature is low, mainly used for heating, preparation of domestic hot water, flue gas can be used to drive absorption chillers and production steam outward.

④燃氣進氣壓力

4. Gas inlet pressure

一般情況下,發電機組燃氣進氣壓力由低到高的順序為:內燃機組,微型燃氣輪機組,小型燃氣輪機組。小型燃氣輪機組進氣壓力比較大,一般為高壓或次高壓,因此需要增設燃氣壓縮機,而燃氣壓縮過程需要消耗大量能量,影響到小型燃氣輪機的實際輸出功率,一些項目甚至需要消耗小型燃氣輪機15%~20%的輸出功率。內燃機組與微型燃氣輪機組燃氣進氣壓力較低,通常為低壓或中壓。

In general, the order of gas intake pressure from low to high is: internal combustion unit, micro gas turbine unit, small gas turbine unit. The intake pressure of small gas turbines is relatively high, usually high pressure or sub-high pressure, so it is necessary to add gas compressor. The process of gas compression needs to consume a lot of energy, which affects the actual output power of small gas turbines. Some projects even need to consume 15%-20% output power of small gas turbines. The intake pressure of internal combustion units and micro gas turbine units is low, usually low or medium pressure.

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